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# Microsoft Excel 2010 : Building More Powerful Worksheets - Using Logical & Financial Functions

8/9/2011 4:36:31 PM

### Using Logical Functions

You can use logical functions to help you test whether conditions are true or false or make comparisons between expressions. The logical functions in Excel include: AND, FALSE, IF, IFERROR, NOT, OR, and TRUE. The structure of the IF function is IF(logical_test, value_if_false, value_if_false). For example, IF(E6<31,F6,””). If E6 is less than 31, then display the contents of F6; if not, then display nothing. You can also nest logical functions within a logical function. For example, IF(AND(E7>=61, E7<=90),F7,””). If E7 is greater than or equal to 61 and less than or equal to 61, then display the contents of F7; if not, then display nothing.

#### Use Logical Functions Click the cell where you want to place the function. Type = (equal sign), type a text function, specify the argument for the selected function, and then press Enter.

Some syntax examples include:

• =IF(logical_test, value_if_false, value_if_false)

Some examples include:

• =IF(E6<31,F6,””)

• =IF(AND(E7>=61, E7<=90),F7,””)

• =IF(NOT(A2<=15),“Goal”,“Not Goal”)

Or click the Formulas tab, click the Logical button, click a function, specify the function arguments, and then click OK. ## Logical Functions

FunctionDescription
ANDReturns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE
FALSEReturns the logical value FALSE
IFSpecifies a logical test to perform
IFERRORReturns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error, otherwise returns the result of the formula
NOTReverses the logic of its argument
ORReturns TRUE if any argument is TRUE
TRUEReturns the logical value TRUE

### Using Financial Functions

You can use financial functions to help you work with formulas related to business, accounting, and investment. You can use formulas for depreciation, such as SLN (Straight-Line Depreciation) and SYD (Sum-of-Years’ Digits), or formulas for interest and investments, such as FV (Future Value of an investment), EFFECT (Effective annual interest rate) or IPMT (Interest Payment for an investment or loan). Many of the investment functions use the following arguments: rate, nominal_rate, per, nper, pv, fv, pmt, and type. Rate is the interest rate per period; Nominal_rate is the nominal interest rate; Per is the period for which you want to find the interest (between 1 and nper); Nper is the total number of payments periods; Pv is the present value; Fv is the future value; Pmt is the payment made each period; and Type is the number 0 or 1 to indicate when payments are due (0 at the end of the period or 1 at the beginning of the period). Many of the depreciation functions use the following arguments: cost, salvage, and life. Cost is the initial cost of the asset; Salvage is the value at the end of the depreciation; Life is the number of periods the asset is depreciated.

#### Use Financial Functions Click the cell where you want to place the function. Type = (equal sign), type a text function, specify the argument for the selected function, and then press Enter.

Some syntax examples include:

• =FV(rate, nper, pmt, pv, type)

• =EFFECT(nominal_rate, npery)

• =IPMT(rate, per, nper, pv, fv, type)

• =SLN(cost, salvage, life)

• =SYD(cost, salvage, life, per)

Or click the Formulas tab, click the Financial button, click a function, specify the function arguments, and then click OK. Other -----------------

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